Agus Ridwan


Linguistic units in any language will develop at a certain time. Such development can occur in the field of phonology, (morpho)syntax, and semantics. However, not all of linguistic units can develop in parallel on these three areas. It also occurs at the language units of German like verbs haben ‘have’ and sein ‘to be’. The verbs haben ‘have’ and sein ‘to be’ can have function as a full verb. In addition to a full verb, the verbs haben ‘have’ and sein ‘to be’ also serve as an auxiliary verb, a functional verb and a modality verb. The various functions of verbs especially the origin of its formation certainly created problems of its own good observer of language and German language teachers/learners. In connection with the issue this article tries to describe the development of verbs haben ‘have’ and sein ‘to be’. The theory used in the analysis is the theory of grammaticalization in the field of syntagmatic/paradigmatic (morpho)syntax and semantics.
Keywords: verb, auxiliary verb, full verb, functional verb, grammaticalization

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