TUTURAN TABU DALAM FILM JEPANG TENTANG REMAJA

Husnul Hamidiyah

Abstract


Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji informasi mengenai tuturan yang dianggap
tidak sopan dan dapat membedakan bentuk, motif, fungsi, konteks emotif, dan strategi xfemisme
pada penggunaan tuturan tabu dalam situasi percakapan bahasa Jepang.
Penelitian ini berlandaskan pada teori para ahli linguistik yaitu Allan dan Burridge (2006), Ullmann
(2006), Searle (1975), Boeree (2006), Hughes (1991), Yonekawa (2008), dan Fargo (2009).
Penelitian ini menggunakan metode telaah pustaka dan metode analisis deskriptif kualitatif.
Sumber data adalah film Jepang bertema tentang remaja yaitu Confessions (2010) karya
Tetsuya Nakashima, Detroit Metal City (2008) karya Toshio Lee, dan sekuel Crows Zero
(2007 dan 2009) karya Takashi Miike.Data penelitian ini berupa kalimat yang mengandung
tuturan tabu yang ditemukan sebanyak 70 data. Hasil pengklasifikasian dan analisis data
menunjukkan bahwa (1) bentuk tuturan tabu dengan sistem ekskresi yaitu 1 data, organ tubuh
yaitu 3 data, aktivitas seksual yaitu 5 data, kelainan seksual yaitu 2 data, kematian yaitu 2 data,
pembunuhan yaitu 7 data, penamaan/ pengalamatan yaitu 13 data, tempat/ objek sakral/ religi
yaitu 7 data, penyakit yaitu 2 data, hewan yaitu 6 data, fisik tidak ideal yaitu 1 data, mental di
bawah normal yaitu 14 data, dan kotoran yaitu 7 data; (2) motif tuturan tabu dengan motif
taboo of fear, yaitu 7 data, motif taboo of delicacy yaitu 11 data, dan motif taboo of propriety
yaitu 52 data; (3) fungsi tuturan tabu dengan fungsi asertif yaitu 16 data, fungsi direktif yaitu
7 data, fungsi komisif yaitu 1 data, fungsi ekspresif yaitu 46 data, dan fungsi deklaratif nol
data; (4) konteks emotif tuturan tabu dengan konteks keterkejutan yaitu 3 data, konteks
ketakutan yaitu 4 data, konteks kemarahan yaitu 39 data, konteks kesedihan yaitu 7 data,
konteks keinginan yaitu 7 data, konteks kebahagiaan yaitu 7 data, dan konteks kebosanan
yaitu 3 data; (5) strategi x-femisme tuturan tabu dengan tipe disfemisme yaitu 27 data,
ortofemisme yaitu 40 data, dan eufemisme yaitu 3 data. Hasil analisis dapat disimpulkan
secara umum bahwa penggunaan tuturan tabu senantiasa didasari dengan latar belakang
kebahasaan seperti bentuk, motif, fungsi, konteks emotif, dan strategi x-femisme. Kemudian,
penggunaan tuturan tabu juga mempengaruhi keberhasilan komunikasi yang diharapkan
antara penutur dan petutur.

Kata kunci: Bentuk, Motif, Fungsi, Konteks Emotif, Strategi X-Femisme


The research is to find out the information of the speeches which are considered
impolite and to differentiate the form, motif, function, emotive context, and x-femisme strategy
of taboo speeches in Japanese stituational conversations. The research is based on the
arguments of linguists such as Allan and Burridge (2006), Ullmann (2006), Searle (1975),
Boeree (2006), Hughes (1991), Yonekawa (2008), and Fargo (2009). The research uses
library research and qualitative descriptive methods. The sources of data are youth themed
Japanese movies Confessions (2010) by Tetsuya Nakashima, Detroit Metal City (2008) by
Toshio Lee, and sequels of Crows Zero (2007 & 2009) by Takashi Miike. The research data
are in the forms of sentences which comprise 70 taboo speeches. The results of classification
and analysis show that (1) the form(s) of taboo speeches which point to excression system is 1

evidence; body parts are 3 evidences; sexual activities are 5 evidences; sexual deviations are
2; deaths are 2; murders are 7; apellations are 13; places/sacred objects/religious are 7;
diseases are 2; animals are 6; non-ideal phisical appearance is 1; mental disorders are 14;
and trashes are 7; (2) the motifs of taboo speeches are classified as: taboo of fear denotes 7
evidences, taboo of delicacy denotes 11 evidences, and taboo of propriety denotes 52
evidences; (3) taboo speeches function with assertive functions are 16 evidences, directive
functions are 7, commisive function is only 1, expressive functions are 46 evidences, and no
declarrative function; (4) emotive contexts of taboo speeches which encompass surprise
contexts are 3 evidences, fear contexts are 4 evidences, anger contexts are 39 evidences, sad
contexts are 7, want contexts are 7, happy context: 7, and boring contexts are 3 evidences; (5)
taboo speeches of x-femisme strategy of disfemism denotes 27 evidences, ortofemism: 40
evidences, and eufemism: 3 evidences. Generally speaking, the use of taboo speeches are
always attached to language system such as form, emotive context, and x-femism strategy.
Thus, the use of the taboo speeches also influence the success of communication between
communicators.

Keywords: form, motif, function, emotive context, x-femism strategy

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